Monday, August 24, 2020

Jesus and the Dignity of Women

From the earliest starting point of Christ’s crucial, show to him and to his puzzle a unique affectability which is normal for their womanliness. It should likewise be said this is particularly confirmed†¦ at the Cross as well as at the beginning of the Resurrection. The ladies are the first at the burial place. They are the first to think that its unfilled. They are the first to hear: â€Å"He isn't here. He has ascended, as he said†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ They are likewise the first to be called to declare this reality to the Apostles. Imprint reports that at the hour of the execution of Jesus all his male followers had fled. In any case, there were a few ladies viewing from a separation. Among them were Mary Magdala, Mary who was the mother of James the more youthful and Joses, and Salome. These used to tail him and take care of him when he was in Galilee. What's more, numerous other ladies were there who had come up to Jerusalem with him (Mark 15: 40). Here Mark utilizes a similar articulation for â€Å"following† Jesus as he does on account of the devotees. Ladies were educates similarly as men. That was new for the universe of the time. In the hover of Jesus’ followers ladies were on a similar balance. What moved Jesus to accumulate ladies around him similarly as men? Obviously as a man he had no feelings of dread about coming into contact with ladies. All the Gospels report that it was the ladies who had continued on by Jesus’ cross. The lady â€Å"who had a progression of blood† (cf. Mk 5:25-34), who couldn't contact anybody since it was accepted that her touch would make an individual â€Å"impure†. Every one of them was mended, and the last-referenced †the one with a progression of blood, who contacted Jesus’ piece of clothing â€Å"in the crowd† (Mk 5:27) †was commended by him for her incredible confidence: â€Å"Your confidence has made you well† (Mk 5:34). The Gospel of St. Luke gives extraordinary consideration to Jesus’ relationship with ladies. He tells how Jesus on his wanderings was joined by the twelve as well as by† certain ladies whom he had restored of shrewdness spirits and infirmities: Mary Magdalene, from whom seven evil presences had gone out, Joanna the spouse of Herod’s steward Chuza. Susanna and numerous others. They accommodated Jesus and his supporters out of their own assets â€Å"(Luke 8: 2). So when Jesus was meandering around the nation, there were consistently ladies around him with whom he had an individual relationship. He had recuperated them, contacted them, raised them up, and liberated them from evil spirits, I. e. from examples of life which limited them, from demonizing and denouncing themselves. He had reestablished their pride as ladies. Furthermore, these ladies weren’t just beneficiaries: they likewise offered something to Jesus consequently. They served him with their assets, yet additionally with their abilities, with the internal and external endowments available to them. The Greek word for† serve â€Å"really implies serving at table. The ladies served at table, they served life. They excited life in Jesus and his devotees. They made a circle in which life could prosper. In the place of the sisters Mary and Martha, who have offered accommodation to Jesus (Luke 10: 38 †42), Mary is sitting at Jesus’ feet. The expression used to portray this stance is one ordinarily utilized of teaching. It is correspondingly said of Paul that he had sat under Gamaliel and had been told in the law of the Lord (Acts 22: 3). So this lady is the same amount of a devotee as different supporters of Jesus. Though Martha serves Jesus and his supporters at table, Mary just stays there and tunes in to Jesus and reveals to him that he ought to request that Mary help her. However, Jesus favors one side with Mary. She has picked the great part, which won't be detracted from her. The scene wherein Luke depicts Martha shows how open Jesus was in his dealings with ladies. He guarantees their accommodation, however he additionally pays attention to them as devotees. He teaches Mary in what makes a difference most to her. Furthermore, he participates in the conflict between the two sisters without harming one of them and without permitting himself to be taken over by the other. He makes an understood stand, however so that neither one of the feels despised. One more scene in the Gospel of Luke appears to me significant in revealing insight into Jesus’ relations with ladies. The holy messenger by the burial chamber says to the ladies who are to be the main observers of the restoration, â€Å"Remember what he said to you when he was still in Galilee† ( Luke 24: 6). For the heavenly attendants, the ladies are observers not exclusively to the restoration yet in addition to the words which Jesus has addressed them. Jesus broadcasted his lessons not exclusively to male trains yet in addition to female followers. They demonstrate the veracity of his instructing on an equivalent balance. They hand on his words. They review these words and keep them in their recollections. What's more, similarly as with Mary, these colloquialisms go all around in their psyches, infiltrating into them increasingly more profoundly. So the understanding of the message of Jesus isn’t simply given by the men, yet to an equivalent degree by ladies. At the point when Luke portrays a scene with a man as the central character, it is quickly trailed by another with a lady in the fundamental job. An anecdote about a lady is set up to contend with an illustration about a man. Luke accepts that he can talk appropriately about people simultaneously. Tragically the congregation didn’t reach any determinations from this. For a really long time, just men deciphered the message of Jesus. The most profound fellowship with a lady is what partners Jesus with Mary of Magdala. Jesus drove seven evil spirits out of Mary Magdalene. She owed him her life. At the point when Jesus kicked the bucket, her reality crumbled. In any case, her adoration outlived demise. Her experience with the risen Christ is another start for her biography. At the point when she saw him, she’s totally changed, and says to him, â€Å"Rabboni† (My Master) (John 10:16). Throughout the entire existence of Christianity numerous ladies have lived as companions of Jesus like Teresa of Avila and Hildegard of Bingen. Jesus of Nazareth affirms this nobility, reviews it, restores it, and makes it a piece of the Gospel and of the Redemption for which he is sent into the world. Each word and motion of Christ about ladies should consequently be brought into the element of the Paschal Mystery. Along these lines everything is totally clarified.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

English Renaissance Poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

English Renaissance Poetry - Essay Example The association among workmanship and nature in English verse had started and later thrived during the Romantic Period, particularly with writers like Wordsworth, Shelly, Keats, Byron, Blake and Clare. As indicated by Ross, the prior Renaissance, exemplified by the peaceful artists Sidney, Spencer and Breton, would in general consider nature to be a standard, craftsmanship as a defilement (Richard Ross' investigation of Herrick, E. in C, XV, 1965, 171-180)1. In any case, Taylor presumes that 'both Nature and Art were important to any exact, total perspective on the world'. Nature needs the support of man's specialty. In sixteenth century, word 'workmanship' had a critical feeling of 'bogus or fake impersonation.' While portraying Temple of Venus, Spencer considers craftsmanship to be nature as working partners2: The amalgamation of craftsmanship and nature is existent all through, however no place it is more clear than in Book VI. Sidney is another artist/essayist who made an incredible commitment toward this path, as conceded by numerous researchers throughout the years. Sidney praises writer's capacity in reexamining the nature. It was a tranquil period in history when there were no wars, expressions were prospering and normal environment was immaculate by man, individuals were acceptable and just and writing was simply rising out old enough worn clichs. Individuals in country zones actually lived upheld by Nature, and these artists were on top of them, which can be seen by the agreeable sonnet The Garden of Marvell. The most per SPENCER AND THE FAIRIE QUEENE: The absolute best way workmanship could impersonate nature, is appeared by Spencer's works. This English epic sonnet of Spencer distributed in 1590 out of three books, was a symbolic work applauding Queen Elizabeth I. In acquainting peaceful realm with English writing, Spencer appears to have followed the strides of Homer and Virgil (Eclogues). Truly, all Renaissance humanists followed Virgil's strides in their reverence of nature, and joined it in different types of expressions. Sidney said Peaceful was believed to be the humblest kind of verse (p.943), and Spencer would have liked to be the new peaceful Virgil of Renaissance. Peaceful verse presents a hopeful image of country life, where Nature and Art join together to make an Utopia or Shangri-la. These writers demonstrated tremendous comprehension and empathy towards Nature and Art both. Generally it is the consequence of humanist training and love for nature, which later reflected in the poetics of William Wordsworth. It has love, enticement, passing, grieving, nature's ever-stroking and relieving nearness, and the craftsmanship that stems out of emulating the nature. Spencer's perspective on nature is constantly considered to have contained 'logical inconsistency'. In the eighth canto of the fourth book, Spencer gives purposes behind the rot of nature, while saying the world 'has runne very out of square'..the glorious bodies wander aimlessly, even the sun it is dreaded, in time, will us very neglect. Spencer later gives a progressively agreeable image of the nature: In sort as they were shaped aunciently; And everything will diminish unto uniformity. (V.ii.32). In later days, peaceful verse was fortified by the compelling Shakespeare, while the early Renaissance writers just oversaw

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Who is this Selim guy COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Who is this Selim guy COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Selim Can Sazak MIA ISP 2015 Currently, I am working towards my Master’s degree in International Affairs in the School of International and Public Affairs, specializing on International Security Policy and the Middle East. I am a Fulbright scholar, the co-chairperson of the Schools Defense and Security Student Organization and a member of the 2014-2015 class of Columbia University’s International Fellows Program, a two-semester seminar on the U.S’s role in world affairs that admits only 30 students from all graduate programs on the basis of academic merit. I also received SIPA’s Dasturdaza Jal Pavry Award awarded to the best graduate paper on the topic of international peace and understanding with a paper proposing a political argument and legal basis for the use of frozen assets by the UNSC to fund humanitarian assistance in complex refugee emergencies based on Article VII provisions. Alongside my studies, I am a regular blogger for Christian Science Monitors new blog on cyber security and I am contribu ting to media outlets like The National Interest, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists and Hurriyet Daily News. I received my bachelors degree in philosophy from Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey. After graduating, I spent two years working for a NATO research center on terrorism and counter-terrorism and an international NGO, Pugwash Conferences of Science and World Affairs, the laureate of the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. While working for NATO, my duties included briefing senior military commanders in the Turkish General Staff and organizing training programs for mid-level NATO officers under the supervision of the Centers academic advisor and required wide-ranging knowledge on the nature, structure and history of religious, separatist and revolutionary terrorist organizations active in the Middle East as well as domestic terrorist groups and emerging threats like cyber-terrorism. In my later work for Pugwash Conferences, I also gained experience in the field; participating in conflict resolution and multitrack diplomacy efforts in Iran, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Syria, Palestine and Nagorno-Karabakh. I was the government liaison in the team that put together Pugwash’s Biennial Conference held in Istanbul, which hosted the President of Turkey, H.E. Abdullah Gul and Foreign Ministers of Iran and Turkey, H.E. Javad Zarif and H.E. Ahmet Davutoglu and a junior staffer in the informal meetings Pugwash had organized with high-level Iranian officials on Irans nuclear program. I was also an adviser in the team that devised Turkey’s policy on conventional arms control during 2013 OSCE Security Review Conference. After SIPA, I hope to be a scholar and a practitioner; talking, thinking, teaching and working to promote a more egalitarian and more peaceful international order. I am applying to several Ph.D. programs, including Columbia and I hope that I will be around Morningside Heights for a few more years to come. I am also involved in ongoing diplomatic projects, including an effort for an international cyber-security treaty. I believe in change, in the responsibility to making right what you see wrong. I see many wrongs in our world, and I feel responsible for making them right, wherever I can.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Homer s Iliad A Wealth Of Contradiction And Manipulation

ILIAD Homer’s Iliad is a wealth of contradiction and manipulation. The epic tale serves as a lesson in human nature and desire. It follows the journey of those involved in the Trojan War. Homer paints the arrogance and humility of man and God in the same manner. This concept is best illustrated through the many speeches found in the epic poem. Time and again, the cast of characters drive home their own desires and beliefs. Each individual is imploring their compatriots and enemies toward their desired goals which become evident in their choice of words. In an epic poem such as this, it is almost impossible to narrow down the choice of favored speeches. The first character of choice is Nestor. His wise and advisory role is best seen in his speech in Iliad 11. In his words to Patroklos, Nestor is a soldier. He falls into a limbo between the young man’s need for the heat of battle and the elder man’s reminiscence of what that battle really entails. It is a profound peek into a world weary man who still hasn’t decided what side he’s chosen. Nestor is his own champion. Throughout the Iliad, he delivers useful advice sandwiched between reminders of his own success and attributes. In Iliad 11, Nestor is the pivotal presence in changing the tide. Achilles has been sidelined through much of the battle. By his own choice, Achilles has changed the tide of the war. With this one speech, Nestor all but guarantees Achilles compliance. In this speech he uses his reputation to encourage

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Roles of Cultural Belief Systems in Respects to Theme...

Pedro Paramo is a novel that cannot be fully understood without consideration of its rich cultural background. It is this Mexican background, which informs so much of the novel, providing the main conflict. The narrator of the tale remarks â€Å"some villages have the smell of misfortune† while describing the locale of Pedro Parà ¡mo, the small Mexican town of Comala where the story plays out on many levels (83). On the surface level, this story is merely about a tyranical man who ruins his hometown of Comala. But in reality he does much more than that, his presence detroys the town completely, driving everyone out and converting the town to a type of purgatory. This deeper harm that he causes, by damning the rest of his townsmen is the evil†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"‘I would walk into town to see what the uproar was about, and this is what I would see: just what we’re seing now. Nothing. No one. The streets as empty as they are now† (41). The st reets are always empty in Comala. It has been left completely to ruin and is now inhabited only by the spirits of those who once lived here. But even spirits must have a reason for staying and not going on to heaven? In following with the Catholic faith, the people of Comala must wait in purgatory, the â€Å"‘Refuge of Sinners’† until they have repaid the sins they have committed (16). The town is a hotbed of sinning, the very â€Å"image of damnation†, it is said â€Å"‘That town sits on the coals of the earth, at the very mouth of hell. They say that when people from there die and go to hell, they come back for a blanket’† (52, 6). The instances in which people are actually able to get out are few and far between, as seen by the quote â€Å"‘they’ve gone so far that it’s easier not to come back. He’s been trying and trying to leave, and I think this is the time’† (56). This is owing to the abje ct poverty of the town, leaving people unable to pay their tithes in order to make it to heaven. These poor soulds are not even kept in remembrance, so they may never reach heaven. As their descendants remark â€Å"‘we don’t even make the effort to pray for them anymore, to help them out of their purgatory’† (52). Pedro Pà ¡ramo is a novel with a distinctly Catholic conflict, namely, the journey from

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact of Wach Tv Children Free Essays

string(65) " other risky behaviors in the shows and movies they watch on TV\." Title: -The Impact of watchingTelevision for Children The Case of Children watching Television in Ethiopia Chapter One 1. Introduction 1. 1 Back Ground Television (TV) has its good side. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Wach Tv Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now It can be entertaining and educational, and can open up new worlds for kids, giving them a chance to travel the globe, learn about different cultures, and gain exposure to ideas they may never encounter in their own community. Shows with a prosaically message can have a positive effect on kids’ behavior; programs with positive role models can influence viewers to make positive lifestyle changes. However, the reverse can also be true:   Kids are likely to learn things from TV that parents don’t want them to learn. TV can affect kids’ health, behavior and family life in negative ways. Whether good or bad, television has found its way into the lives of people all over the world and it an important part of life for many. Some consider it to be a great invention while others say that it harms people and society. Here is a summary of those thoughts. Television is often the main or only source of information about current events and biased or inadequate reporting can deliver inaccurate or misleading information and opinion. Ethiopian Television was established in 1964 with assistance from the British firm, Thomson. It was created to highlight the Organization of African Unity (OAU) meeting that took place in Addis Ababa that same year. Color television broadcast began in 1982 in commemoration of the founding of Workers’ Party of Ethiopia (WPE). The current structure and goals of ETV were established 1987 with Proclamation This research may see general and specific area of in Addis Ababa, children see television that its impact. The television and channel clients are increasing every day around the city so, we need to the advantage and disadvantages in the children see tv. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem In recent years, TV, video and DVD programs have come on the market—and now even a cable channel for children. We don’t know yet what effect TV-viewing by children may have on their development. We do know that time spent watching TV replaces time spent interacting with caregivers and other children. Social interaction is critical to a child’s healthy affected. A great deal is known about children and television, because there have been thousands of studies on the subject. Research has studied how TV affects kids’ sleep, weight, grades, behavior, and more. Spending time watching TV can take time away from healthy activities like active play outside with friends, eating dinner together as a family, or reading. TV time also takes away from participating in sports, music, art or other activities that require practice to become skillful. Children can be exposed to programming that is not appropriate for their age. Adult themes of sex and violence are far too easily accessed and they destroy the innocence of children. Adults frequently spend many hours each day watching television to the detriment of work or family life. 1. 3 Objectives This research goal to show the impact of watching TV children among the cultural, society and school life in Addis Ababa. To show the problem and recommend the way of protecting and minimizing the problem through awareness of the research. How big a presence is TV in kids’ lives? * TV viewing among kids is at an eight-year high. On average, children ages 2-5 spend 32 hours a week in front of a TV—watching television, DVDs, DVR and videos, and using a game console. Kids ages 6-11 spend about 28 hours a week in front of the TV. The vast majority of this viewing (97%) is of live TV [1]. * 71% of 8- to 18-year-olds have a TV in their bedroom [1a]; 54% have a DVD/VCR player, 37% have cable/satellite TV, and 20% have premium channels [2]. * Media technology now offers more ways to access TV content, such as on the Internet, cell phones and iPods. This has led to an increase in time spent viewing TV, even as TV-set viewing has declined. 41% of TV-viewing is now online, time-shifted, DVD or mobile [2a]. * In about two-thirds of households, the TV is â€Å"usually† on during meals [3]. * In 53% of households of 7th- to 12th-graders, there are no rules about TV watching [4]. * In 51% of households, the TV is on â€Å"most† of the time [5]. * Kids with a TV in their bedroom spend an average of almost 1. 5 hours more per day watching TV than kids without a TV in the bedroom. * Many parents encourage their toddlers to watch television. Find out more about TV in the lives of children ages zero to six. * Find out more about media in the lives of 8- to 18-year olds. As you can see, if your child is typical, TV is playing a very big role in their life. Here are some key research findings to keep in mind as you decide what kind of role you want TV to play in your family: * TV viewing is probably replacing activities in your child’ s life that you would rather have them do (things like playing with friends [6] , being physically active, getting fresh air, reading, playing imaginatively, doing homework [7], doing chores). Kids who spend more time watching TV (both with and without parents and siblings present) spend less time interacting with family members. [8] * Excessive TV viewing can contribute to poor grades [8a], sleep problems, behavior problems, obesity, and risky behavior. * Most children’s programming does not teach what parents say they want their children to learn; many shows are filled with stereotypes, violent solutions to problems, and mean behavior. * Advertisers target kids, and on average, children see tens of thousands of TV commercials each year [9]. This includes many ads for unhealthy snack foods and drinks. Children and youth see, on average, about 2,000 beer and wine ads on TV each year [10]. * Kids see favorite characters smoking, drinking, and involved in sexual situations and other risky behaviors in the shows and movies they watch on TV. You read "The Impact of Wach Tv Children" in category "Essay examples" * More on how television viewing affects children. * For more detailed information on these and other issues, read on. Does TV affect children’s brain development? With television programs—and even a cable channel—designed and marketed specifically for babies, whether kids under two years of age should be watching becomes an important question. While we are learning more all the time about early brain development, we do not yet have a clear idea how television may affect it. Some studies link early TV viewing with later attention problems, such as ADHD. However, other experts disagree with these results. One study found that TV viewing before age three slightly hurt several measures of later cognitive development, but that between ages three and five it slightly helped reading scores [11]. The American Academy of Pediatrics takes a â€Å"better-safe-than-sorry† stance on TV for young children [12]. It may be tempting to put your infant or toddler in front of the television, especially to watch shows created just for children under age two. But the American Academy of Pediatrics says: Don’t do it! These early years are crucial in a child’s development. The Academy is concerned about the impact of television programming intended for children younger than age two and how it could affect your child’s development. Pediatricians strongly oppose targeted programming, especially when it’s used to market toys, games, dolls, unhealthy food and other products to toddlers. Any positive effect of television on infants and toddlers is still open to question, but the benefits of parent-child interactions are proven. Under age two, talking, singing, reading, listening to music or playing are far more important to a child’s development than any TV show. † In addition, TV can discourage and replace reading. Reading requires much more thinking than television, and we know that reading fosters young people’s healthy brain development. Kids from families that have the TV on a lot spend less time reading and being read to, and are less likely to be able to read [13]. What about TV and aggressive or violent behavior? Literally thousands of studies since the 1950s have asked whether there is a link between exposure to media violence and violent behavior. All but 18 have answered, â€Å"Yes. †Ã‚  Ã‚   The evidence from the research is overwhelming. According to the AAP, â€Å"Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed. † [14]   Watching violent shows is also linked with having less empathy toward others [14a]. An average American child will see 200,000 violent acts and 16,000 murders on TV by age 18 [15]. * Two-thirds of all programming contains violence [16]. * Programs designed for children more often contain violence than adult TV [17]. * Most violent acts go unpunished on TV and are often accompanied by humor. The consequences of human suffering and loss are rarely depicted. * Many shows glamorize violence. TV o ften promotes violent acts as a fun and effective way to get what you want, without consequences [18]. Even in G-rated, animated movies and DVDs, violence is common—often as a way for the good characters to solve their problems. Every single U. S. animated feature film produced between 1937  and 1999 contained violence, and the amount of violence with intent to injure has increased over the years [19]. * Even â€Å"good guys† beating up â€Å"bad guys† gives a message that violence is normal and okay. Many children will try to be like their â€Å"good guy† heroes in their play. * Children imitate the violence they see on TV. Children under age eight cannot tell the difference between reality and fantasy, making them more vulnerable to learning from and adopting as reality the violence they see on TV [20]. * Repeated exposure to TV violence makes children less sensitive toward its effects on victims and the human suffering it causes. * A University of Michigan researcher demonstrated that watching violent media can affect willingness to help others in need [20a]. Read about the study here: Comfortably Numb: Desensitizing Effects of Violent Media on Helping Others. Viewing TV violence reduces inhibitions and leads to more aggressive behavior. * Watching television violence can have long-term effects:   * A 15-year-long study by University of Michigan researchers found that the link between childhood TV-violence viewing and aggressive and violent behavior persists into adulthood [21]. * A 17-year-long study found that teenaged boys who grew up watching more TV each day are more likely to commit acts of vi olence than those who watched less [22]. * Even having the TV on in the home is linked to more aggressive behavior in 3-year-olds. This was regardless of the type of programming and regardless of whether the child was actually watching the TV [23]. What parents can do: * According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, media education can help kids become less susceptible to the bad effects of watching violent TV. Some studies have shown that kids who received media education had less violent behavior after watching violent programs. Teach your kids to be media savvy. Find out more about media literacy. * Watch with your kids, so if the programming turns violent, you can discuss what happened to put it in a context you want your kids to learn. Know what your kids are watching. Decide what programs are appropriate for their age and personality, and stick to your rules. * To minimize peer pressure to watch violent shows, you may want to talk to the parents of your child’s friends and agree to similar rules. * Visit YourChild:   Managing Television:   Tips for Your Family for more ideas. For more on TV v iolence and kids: * Key Facts: TV Violence—a report from the Kaiser Family Foundation. * A 1993 summary of some of the research on TV violence and behavior. * Television Violence:   Content, Context, and Consequences. The National Television Violence Study (NTVS). * Television Violence:   A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages—a 1995 70-page report and review of the literature. * Violence in the Media–Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects: Decades of psychological research confirms that media violence can increase aggression. * Comfortably Numb: Desensitizing Effects of Violent Media on Helping Others—This study by a University of Michigan researcher demonstrates that watching violent media can affect willingness to help others in need. Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children:   Congressional Public Health Summit—a statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, American. Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, American Psychological Association, American Medical Association, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Psychiatric Association. Can TV scare or traumatize kids? Children can come to view the world as a mean and scary place when they take violence and other disturbing themes on TV to be accurate in real life. Symptoms of being frightened or upset by TV stories can include bad dreams, anxious feelings, being afraid of being alone, withdrawing from friends, and missing school. * Fears caused by TV can cause sleep problems in children [24]. * Scary-looking things like grotesque monsters especially frighten children aged two to seven. Telling them that the images aren’t real does not help because kids under age eight can’t always tell the difference between fantasy and reality. * Many children exposed to scary movies regret that they watched because of the intensity of their fright reactions. Children ages 8-12 years who view viol ence are often frightened that they may be a victim of violence or a natural disaster. * Violent threats shown on TV can cause school-aged kids (8-12) to feel fright and worry. When the threat is shown as news it creates stronger fears than when it is shown as fictional [25]. How does watching television affect performance in school? * TV viewing may replace activities that we know help with school performance, such as reading, doing homework, pursuing hobbies, and getting enough sleep. * One research study found that TV’s effects on education were long term. The study found that watching TV as a child affected educational achievement at age 26. Watching more TV in childhood increased chances of dropping out of school and decreased chances of getting a college degree, even after controlling for confounding factors [26]. * Watching TV at age four was one factor found to be associated with bullying in grade school [27]. Can TV influence children’s attitudes toward themselves and others? Let’s take a look at what kids see on TV, and how it can affect their beliefs about race and gender: * Children learn to accept the stereotypes represented on television. After all, they see them over and over. * When non-whites are shown on TV, they tend to be stereotyped. * A review of the research on gender bias shows that the gender-biased and gender-stereotyped behaviors and attitudes that kids see on television do affect how they see male and female roles in our society. * Television and movies do not often show Asians or Asian Americans, and when they do, they fail to show the diversity in Asian American culture [28]. * Thin women are disproportionately represented on TV. The heavier a female character, the more negative comments were made about her [29]. * In 1990’s commercials, white men more often were depicted as strong, while white women were shown as sex objects. African American men more often were portrayed as aggressive and African American women, as inconsequential [30]. * Ads for household items, like cleaning products, usually feature women [31]. * G-rated movies are commonly viewed by younger children—often over and over on DVD, and perceived by parents as safe for little kids. However, in these movies, whether live action or animated, males are shown more than females, by three to one, they are not often shown in relationships, and do not solve problems peacefully [32]. * In G-movies, characters of color are under-represented, and are usually shown as sidekicks, comic relief, or bad guys. Male characters of color are more aggressive and isolated [33]. * Music videos over-represent black males as aggressors, and white females as victims, compared to actual demographic data [34]. To learn more, visit the Center for Media Literacy’s page on Stereotyping and Representation How are children portrayed on TV? A study by a group called Children NOW of how children are shown on local TV news, found that [35]: * Almost half of all stories about children focus on crime (45%). * Children account for over a quarter of the U. S. population but only 10% of all local news stories. * African American children account for more than half of all stories (61%) involving children of color, followed by Latino children (32%). Asian Pacific American and Native American children are virtually invisible on local news. * African American boys are more likely than any other group to be portrayed as perpetrators of crime and violence whereas Caucasian girls are most likely to be shown as victims. Can TV affect my child’s health? Yes, TV is a public health issue in several different ways. First of all, kids get lots of information about health from TV, much of it from ads. Ads do not generally give true or balanced information about healthy lifestyles and food choices. The majority of children who watch health-related commercials believe what the ads say. Second, watching lots of television can lead to childhood obesity and overweight. Finally, TV can promote risky behavior, such as trying dangerous stunts, substance use and abuse, and irresponsible sexual behavior. Children who watch more TV are more likely to be overweight * University of Michigan researchers found that just being awake and in the room with the TV on more than two hours a day was a risk factor for being overweight at ages three and four-and-a-half. [34]   * The effects can carry on into adult weight problems. Weekend TV viewing in early childhood affects body mass index (BMI), or overweight in adulthood. [35] * University of Michigan researchers and their colleagues who investigated whether diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior or television viewing predicted body mass index (BMI) among 3- to 7-year-old children, found that physical activity and TV viewing are most associated with overweight risk. TV was a bigger factor than diet. Inactivity and TV became stronger predictors as the children aged [36]. * Children who watch TV are more likely to be inactive and tend to snack while watching TV. Many TV ads encourage unhealthy eating habits. Two-thirds of the 20,000 TV ads an average child sees each year are for food and most are for high-sugar foods. After-school TV ads target children with ads for unhealthy foods and beverages, like fast food and sugary drinks [37, 38]. * All television shows, even educational non-commercial shows, replace physical activity in your child’s life . * While watching TV, the metabolic rate seems to go even lower than during rest [39]. This means that a person would burn fewer calories while watching TV than when just sitting quietly, doing nothing. The food and beverage industry targets children with their television marketing, which may include commercials, product placement, and character licensing. Most of the products pushed on kids are high in total calories, sugars, salt, and fat, and low in nutrients [40]. * Children watching Spanish-language TV after school and in the evening see lots of ads for food and drink. Much of it targets kids and most of the ads are for unhealthy foods like sugared drinks and fast food. This advertising may play a role in the high risk of overweight in Latino kids [40a]. Results from recent studies have reported success in reducing excess weight gain in preadolescents by restricting TV viewing [41]. Childhood TV habits are a risk factor for many adult health problems * One study looked at adul ts at age 26, and how much TV they had watched as children. Researchers found that â€Å"17% of overweight, 15% of raised serum cholesterol, 17% of smoking, and 15% of poor fitness can be attributed to watching television for more than 2 hours a day during childhood and adolescence. †Ã‚   This was after controlling for confounding variables [42]. Children may attempt to mimic stunts seen on TV Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and watching unsafe behavior on TV may increase children’s risk-taking behavior. * Kids have been injured trying to repeat dangerous stunts they have seen on television shows. * Many kids watch TV sporting events. Researchers surveyed TV sports event ads to assess what kids might be seeing. Almost half of all commercial breaks during sporting events contained at least one ad that showed unsafe behavior or violence [43]. Watching TV can cause sleep problems * Television viewing is associated with altered sleep patterns and sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Regular sleep schedules are an important part of healthy sleep. A recent study found that infants and toddlers who watch TV have more irregular sleep schedules. More research is needed to find out whether the TV viewing is the cause [44]. * Those sleep disturbances may persist. Teens who watched three or more hours of TV per day had higher risk of sleep problems by early adulthood [45]. * Find out more in this research brief from the Kaiser Family Foundation: Children’s Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. TV viewing may promote alcohol use The presence of alcohol on TV runs the gamut from drinking or talking about drinking on prime-time shows, to beer ads, to logos displayed at sporting events. * Many studies have shown that alcoholic drinks are the most common beverage portrayed on TV, and that they are almost never shown in a negative light. * Recent studies have shown that exposure to drinking in movies increases the likelihood that viewers themselves will have positive thoughts about drinking [45a]. * Alcohol has damaging effects on young people’s developing brains—and the damage can be permanent. TV ads are a major factor in normalizing alcohol use in the minds of children, adolescents and college students [46]. * Ads for alcohol portray people as being happier, sexier, and more successful when they drink. Alcohol advertising, including TV ads, contributes to an increase in drinking among youth [47]. * Television ads for alcohol, such as â€Å"alcopop,† which combine the sweet taste of soda pop in a liquor-branded malt beverage, may target youth, especially girls and Hispanic and African American kids [47a]. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown University found that in 2003, the top 15 prime time programs most popular with teens all had alcohol ads [48]. * Alcohol is increasingly advertised during programs that young people are more likely to watch than people of legal drinking age [49]. Kids who watch TV are more likely to smoke * Even though tobacco ads are banned on TV, young people still see people smoking on programs and movies shown on t elevision. The tobacco industry uses product placement in films. Smoking in movies increased throughout the 1990s [50] . * Internal tobacco industry documents show that the tobacco industry purposefully markets their product to youth. The industry uses subtle strategies like logos at sporting events, product placement, and celebrities smoking to get around the ban on TV advertising for their products [51] . * Kids who watch more TV start smoking at an earlier age. The relationship between television viewing and age of starting smoking was stronger than that of peer smoking, parental smoking, and gender [52]. Recent research has shown that exposure to smoking in movie characters increases the likelihood that viewers will associate themselves with smoking [52a]. * Find out more about kids and tobacco. Kids get lots of information about sexuality from television * Most parents don’t talk to their kids about sex and relationships, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most schools do not offer complete sex education programs. So kids get much of their information about sex from TV. * Kids are probably not learning what their parents would like them to learn about sex from TV. * Sexual content is a real presence on TV. Soap operas, music videos, prime time shows and advertisements all contain lots of sexual content, but usually nothing about contraception or safer sex. * The number of sex scenes on TV has nearly doubled since 1998, with 70% of the top 20 most-watched shows by teens including sexual content [53]. Fifteen percent of scenes with sexual intercourse depict characters that have just met having sex. Of the shows with sexual content, an average of five scenes per hour involves sex. * Watching sex on TV increases the chances a teen will have sex, and may cause teens to start having sex at younger ages. Even viewing shows with characters talking about sex increases the likelihood of sexual initiation [54]. (Read more about this study. ) * Watching sexual content on TV is linked to becoming pregnant or being responsible for a pregnancy. Researchers found that even after controlling for other risk factors, the chance of teen pregnancy went up with more exposure to sex on television [55]. * On the flip side, TV has the potential to both educate teens, and foster discussion with parents. Watch with your kids, and use the sexual content on TV as a jumping-off point to talk with your teen about sex, responsible behavior and safety. To find out more, read: * The American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) Parent Page on Sex, the Media and Your Child * The AAP’ s policy statement on Sexuality, Contraception and the Media How can I find out more about kids and TV? Here are some websites with helpful information: * The Smart Parent’s Guide to Kid’s TV—from the AAP . * Guia para Ver la Television en Familia, a Spanish publication from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). * Guidelines for Rating Children’s Television, a guideline from PBS Ready To Learn. * Pautas para la evaluacion de los programas de television para ninos, the above guideline, in Spanish. Special issues for young children (2-11 years) and Special issues for teens address some developmental issues. * Talking with kids about the news—10 tips for parents. * The Federal Communication Commission’s (FCC) page on children’s educational TV. Visit these related topics on YourChild: * Managing Television: Tips for Your Family * Media and Media Literacy * Video Games * The Internet * Obesity * Sleep Problems * Reading What are some organizations that work on issues around kids and TV? * The Center for Media Literacy believes in empowerment through education—that kids need to learn how to think critically about TV and other media. Media A wareness Network is a Canadian group with a wealth of information for parents. * The Center for Screentime Awareness sponsors National TV Turn-Off Week each year. Future TV Turn-Off Weeks are in Spring and Fall: April 19-25, 2010 September 19-25, 2010. TV-Turnoff Week is supported by over 70 national organizations including the American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, National Education Association, and President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. References Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, RN. Reviewed by Brad Bushman, PhD How to cite The Impact of Wach Tv Children, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The question of what constitutes a h ealthy person Essays

The question of what constitutes a h ealthy person has been debated for many years. Historically, b iomedical models of illness see physical and mental illness as two separate things. According to this model, il lness stems from forces outside of an individual's control and the only source of treatment would be by a healthcare professional, i.e . a doctor. Health psychology is a reasonably new field of psychology that challenges this belief. H ealth psychologists use scientific research to understand how the brain works, t o understand how memory works , problem - solving and decision making. L ooking at how things like attitudes, feelings, thoughts , beliefs, and values cou ld impact on health and illness. The overall goal is to help people to make healthier lifestyle choices. ( Wilson 2008 ). Two of the main goals of health psychology include preventing illness an d researching into the prevention and the inventions of health-related illness. (Barley, Lawson, (2016). Psychologists use science and research to better understand perception, learning, language, attention, memory, problem-solving, decision-making and judgment. The information t hey gather is vital to the preventions of illness ill related behaviours . Using this information and a deep knowledge of mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders, psychologists are also looking at the interaction between mental processes, behaviours and health and apply this to applying healthy interventions . They use research to help people adopt healthy habit s , promote health and wellness, prevent illness, a nd improve health care systems. Health psychology focuses on research, considering questions such us , what makes some people overeat and can attitude 's affect how much people exercise , and could beliefs affect attempts to stop smoking? Health psychology challenges the biomedical model of illness by viewin g attitude as a contribution to health and illness . In contrast to the biomedical model , the individual isn't seen as a passive factor in their health and illness but as an active contributor, with the main role in not only the progression but also the cause of illness . Health psychologi sts work to prevent many different health-related issues such as obesity, boosting self-esteem, preventing an xiety and depression , and try to enhance the quality of life of individuals. (Freedland 2017 ) Health psychologists help people make positive choices for their health and well-being . Not only for themselves but their friends, families, and communities. (Bishop, Yardley, 2010). T he focus of this assignment is the work Health psychologist do in the areas of prevention and promoting healthy life style practices . This includes looking at the influential factors on health behaviours, including diet, exercise, smoking and life style factors. This essay will discuss the different models that are used by health psychologists to explain and predict behaviours. I t will explain how each of these works and discuss if there is enough evidence to suggest they can pr edict behaviour . Health psychologist have the view that an individual's characteristics can have advers e effects on their physical health. Health psychologists work to identify personality traits that could encourage good health or well - being . The most commonly used theory used in health psychology is The Health Belief Model (HBM). (Glanz, Marcus Lewis Rimer, 1997). In the 1950s socia l psychologists Rosenstock, K egals and Hochbaum attempted to predict and explain health behaviours by looking at the beliefs , attitudes , and thoughts of an individual , this b ecame the Health Belief Model . HBM is now used to research into many different health behaviours , including the tran smission of sexual ly transmitted i nfections , such as HIV/AIDS , and considering sexual risk behaviours. (Widman, Noar, Choukas-Bradley, Francis, 2015) . According to the Guide for health promotion practice ( Glanz, Marcus Lewis, Rimer, 1997). Rosenstock added a more recent addition to the HBM in 1988, this was so health psychologists could use the HBM to consider how to challenge habitual unhealthy behaviours, like overeating, sedentary lifestyle , and smoking. The HBM was based on the theory that an individual will make a choice to use a positive health-r elated action , as a preventa tive measure. I f that